History and development of the most popular Swedis

2022-08-05
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The history and development of Swedish beverage packaging recycling mechanism this paper describes that the Swedish beverage packaging recycling mechanism is a model for the beverage and beverage packaging manufacturing industry to successfully participate in environmental affairs, which is effective and can provide reference for the reform of relevant industries in China

nowadays, all kinds of beer and beverages sold in the market have become people's daily consumer goods. Due to the huge consumption, the recycling of their packaging (such as aluminum cans, polyethylene plastic bottles, etc.) after use has become a social problem that can not be ignored. If not handled properly, it will not only waste a lot of material resources and energy, but also make the retention of such items in nature higher and higher, It causes irreparable pollution to human living environment

in 1981, Sweden first tried out a standardized and effective recovery mechanism from used cans, and in 1984, it was approved by the parliament to formally implement the recovery and deposit system of cans, so that the recovery rate of cans in that year reached 63% and 92% in 1996, At present, it remains at 86% (i.e. 900million cans of beer or beverage in cans registered by the margin system are sold every year, 86% of which are recycled and reused by the recycling mechanism), the highest level in the world. Sweden's beverage packaging recycling mechanism is a model for the beverage and beverage packaging manufacturing industry to successfully participate in environmental protection affairs. It is effective and can provide reference for the reform of relevant industries in China

recycling of cans

1. Material basis

Sweden introduced canned beer products into the domestic market in 1955. Since 1967, the national beer industry has implemented the transition to the production of cans, so that the sales volume of such packaged beer in Sweden accounted for half of the total beer sales in 1979, and realized the domestic production and supply of cans used to pack various beverages in 1981. Compared with bottled or paper packaged beverages, the development of Swedish canned beer industry has greatly encouraged other beverage industries (such as cola, fruit juice and alcoholic soft drinks) to adopt pop-up cans for packaging, which has provided a material basis for Sweden to implement a unified and standardized pop-up can recycling mechanism

2. Recycling and treatment process

the largest canned beverage sales point in Sweden is the major food supermarkets, followed by the food sales departments of sports centers and stadiums, yacht clubs, large companies, tourist campsites, coffee shops, restaurants, kiosks, etc. As long as any consumer puts the used or empty cans accumulated at home into the special recycling machine at the point of sale, the recycling machine will automatically identify the bar code information on the cans (EAN code, the lower part of the bar code also includes the registration number for query), and return 0.5 kronor of valuable vouchers to the consumer on the spot for each recycled cans registered with returnpack company. For example, if a consumer puts 20 empty cans of registered cans into the recycling machine for light-weight materials, industrial equipment, overall solutions, etc., he can immediately get a valuable voucher of 10 Krona (about 11 yuan). The consumer can use the voucher to pay the shopping expenses or cash in at this sales point

each beverage sales point is responsible for collecting all empty aluminum cans from their own special recycling machines, transporting them in special containers to the treatment yard of returnpack company in nook Ping, which is classified, flattened and packaged, and then accepted and registered by the beer manufacturer. According to this registration, returnpack company will return the deposit and treatment fee paid by the seller to the consumer. These packaged cans are sent to the smelting plant as raw materials to be melted and made into aluminum ingot materials (the energy consumed in this process only accounts for 5% of the same amount of aluminum ingot materials produced from bauxite), and then transported to the cans production plant to be reprocessed into cans packaging products for the beverage manufacturer to supply the market after filling drinks

now, the recycling business of iron cans in Sweden is managed by local municipal authorities, and returnpack is studying to include iron cans in the recycling operation mechanism

3. The enterprises involved and their

Sweden returnpack (full name AB Svenska returnpack) is a management company for non-profit purposes, responsible for all recovery and processing of the mechanism, collection and payment of deposits, financial operation and coordination business. Rexam, a large international multinational packaging company, holds 49% of its shares, and the Swedish beer manufacturing association also holds 49% of its shares. The remaining 2% of its shares are respectively owned by axfood, coop, ICA and SSLF, a large Swedish food chain company

returnpack's cans Co., Ltd. is specially responsible for managing all the businesses related to the recovery of cans, such as collecting basic deposits from the manufacturers and importers of cans, selling the processed and packaged cans to the smelter, paying or transferring relevant deposits and processing fees or accounts to retailers and cans' beer and beverage manufacturers with obvious differences with Japan and South Korea The operation management and financial arrangement of the treatment plant related to the cans business, sending people to each recycling point every Friday to check the recycling quantity recorded by the cans recycling machine, re entering the bar code information that is still valid for registration once, and inputting the newly registered bar code information to the recycling machine

all the can beverage manufacturers in Sweden have participated in the recycling mechanism. They are responsible for providing barcode information and registering with returnpack. The can beverage manufacturers are also responsible for providing treatment funds for the recycled empty cans

all importers of cans must also participate in the mechanism, that is, they are responsible for providing barcode information of imported products and registering with returnpack

recovery of plastic bottles for beverages

1. History and current situation

after the successful implementation of the deposit system for the recovery of cans in Sweden, the National Assembly approved the establishment of the deposit system for the recovery of plastic bottles for beverages (polyethylene terephthalate PET) in 1993. Its operation process is similar to that of the recovery of cans, and it was implemented in 1994. At present, the annual sales volume of plastic bottle packaged beverages (including purified water, mineral water, fruit juice, soda, cola, etc.) registered by returnpack company reaches 300million bottles, and the empty bottle recovery rate is 79%

2. Recovery and treatment process

the most common beverage products in the Swedish market are 0.25 ~ 3 liter packages. Due to the large differences in individual and weight of plastic beverage bottles, The special recycling machine will automatically return valuable vouchers to consumers at different rates according to the barcode information registered on the empty plastic bottles (1 Krona for each plastic bottle less than 1 liter, 2 Krona for each plastic bottle more than 1 liter to 3 liters, and 4 Krona for each reusable plastic bottle)

the beverage seller is responsible for collecting all the recycled empty plastic bottles (at this time, special attention should be paid to removing the non beverage packaging made of other materials), and transporting them to the treatment plant in nuosheping city in special containers. After cleaning, sorting, flattening and packaging, they should be handed over to the beverage manufacturer for registration. According to this registration, returnpack company will return the deposit and treatment fee paid by the beverage seller to the consumer. After that, the packaged parts are sent to the raw material processing plant, and they are crushed into two types of raw materials according to the nature of the plastic bottles. Then, the raw materials that can be used to remake the plastic bottles of beverages are made into test tube shaped blanks (the inner and outer layers of the blanks are covered with a new layer of polyethylene material), and then the plastic bottles of beverages are blown into the plastic bottles of beverages by the machine for the beverage manufacturers to fill drinks. The raw materials that can not be used to remake plastic bottles for beverages will be sold to chemical fiber factories to make chemical fiber wool, which will be used to produce products such as woolen clothes, interior decorative materials for automobiles or filling materials for bedding

3. The enterprises involved and the polyethylene plastic bottle Co., Ltd. subordinate to their

returnpack company are specially responsible for the business related to the recycling of polyethylene Beverage plastic bottles, such as collecting basic deposit from plastic bottle packaging beverage manufacturers and 1:3 importers, selling the processed and packaged plastic bottle packaging materials to plastic bottle processing plants or chemical fiber plants Pay or transfer relevant deposits and processing fees or accounts to retailers and plastic bottle packaged beverage manufacturers, the operation management and financial arrangements of the plastic bottle business of the treatment plant, send people to each recycling point every Friday to check the recycling quantity recorded by the plastic bottle recycling machine, re input the barcode information that is still valid for registration once, and input the newly registered barcode information to the recycling machine

all beverage manufacturers and beverage importers in Sweden must participate in the recycling mechanism. In addition to providing barcode information and registering with returnpack, and providing treatment funds for the recycled empty beverage plastic bottles, they are also required to obtain a special guarantee applied by returnpack from the Swedish agricultural authority to ensure the return of the deposit to consumers

due to the late establishment of the deposit system for the recovery of plastic bottles of beverages, the Swedish agricultural administration is also involved in some regulatory work, that is, it is responsible for issuing special licenses to manufacturers or importers of packaged beverages in plastic bottles and charging 10000 kroner a year for management fees. If the expenditure of this fund exceeds half of the year, the relevant enterprises need to pay another 5kg kroner for management fees, So that the process of consumers getting the deposit in time will not be affected

other enterprises and situations related to the operation of the recycling mechanism

according to the relevant regulations of Swedish environmental protection and driven by sales interests, more and more Swedish food stores, especially large chain stores, have invested in setting up sites and facilities to facilitate consumers to put in empty cans and empty plastic drink bottles, For example, in the special recycling machine room at the entrance of the shopping mall (some recycling machines are also set up to accept other types of packaging materials not participating in the recycling mechanism, especially those in the modified plastic industry, such as cartons, shopping bags, glass beer bottles and water bottles, which will be sold to relevant manufacturers or wholesalers. In addition, the special recycling machines also receive aluminum empty cans registered without the recycling mechanism, but no deposit will be returned), To attract consumers to shop here. Although the law does not stipulate that sellers must participate in the recycling mechanism, whether they participate or not has been regarded by the public as one of the enterprise signs of good reputation and environmental awareness. Therefore, even if a small number of large food retail stores do not participate in the recycling mechanism of returnpack, they also recycle the used related packaging items according to their own independent methods. At present, there are 5500 retail stores in Sweden participating in the recycling mechanism, and most of them have signed a direct payment agreement DC (direct credit) with returnpack company, that is, returnpack company provides a guarantee for the return of costs and related processing fees for the empty cans and beverage plastic bottles recycled by the retail stores, and pays about 750million kroner a year

in addition, retail stores that recycle a large number of empty cans or plastic bottles of beverages (especially those that purchase products directly from the manufacturer) do customer registration at relevant product manufacturers, that is, these manufacturers only receive empty cans or plastic bottles sent by registered retail stores to facilitate recycling. For those retail stores with a small amount of recycling, they can register at the nearby large retail stores that have registered customers, which can also facilitate the recycling process

there are two main manufacturers of special recycling machines in Sweden. They are responsible for manufacturing, supplying and maintaining special recycling machines to retailers, and reporting to re every week the results it has produced

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